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Shaping

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Shaping

Definition

Shaping is the use of reinforcement of successive approximations of a desired behavior. Specifically, when using a shaping technique, each approximate desired behavior that is demonstrated is reinforced, while behaviors that are not approximations of the desired behavior are not reinforced.

How to Use

Shaping starts with a task analysis in which a desired behavior is broken down into smaller and more manageable steps that would move the child successively closer to that desired behavior. For example, if the desired behavior is to play independently for 10 minutes with two or fewer prompts, a step analysis may break the desired behavior down into the following approximations:

1.Play for 2 minutes with two or fewer prompts

2.Play for 4 minutes with two or fewer prompts

3.Play for 6 minutes with two or fewer prompts

4.Play for 8 minutes with two or fewer prompts

5.Play for 10 minutes with two or fewer prompts.

Once the small approximations of the desired behavior are clearly identified, one must select the reinforcement to be used and make sure that everyone working with the student knows which behavior, when, and how to reinforce the approximations. Data on the behavior should be collected and reviewed by the team. The program must continue until the child demonstrates the desired behavior.

When to Use

Shaping behavior is an aspect of behavior analysis that gradually teaches new behavior through the use of reinforcement until the target behavior is achieved. In order for shaping to be successful, it is important to clearly define the behavioral objective and the target behavior. Also, in order to gradually achieve the target behavior, a teacher must know when to deliver or withhold reinforcement (Wolfgang, 2001).

Resource List

Association for Science in Autism Treatment (ASAT): http://www.asatonline.org/treatment/procedures/shaping.htm                                                         This link is to the ASAT’s fact sheet on shaping.

Shaping and Chaining: http://www.bbbautism.com/aba_shaping_and_chaining.htm

This link takes the user to information that defines and provides rules for using shaping and chaining.

Examples

Ms. Brown, 10-year-old Jason’s general education teacher, and Ms. Henderson, Jason’s resource room teacher, targeted sitting in his seat during lectures as a desired behavior for Jason during social studies and reading in general and special education settings, respectively. Ms. Henderson suggested a shaping technique to teach seated behavior after she had determined that Jason was remaining in his seat a mean of 2 minutes during social studies.

They analyzed approximations of the target behavior and planned to reinforce those behaviors as follows:

Reinforcing when Jason sits in his seat for a 3 minutes

Reinforcing when Jason sits in his seat for 5 minutes

Reinforcing when Jason sits in his seat for 10 minutes

Reinforcing when Jason sits in his seat for 15 minutes

Reinforcing when Jason sits in his seat for 20 minutes (the targeted time)

Both Ms. Brown and Ms. Henderson differentially reinforced Jason’s sitting behavior in their classrooms based on their criterion of approximations for each phase. After six weeks, Jason acquired sitting behavior in class.

Summary (for parents, administrators, direct service providers, etc.)

Shaping is a systematic process of reinforcing successive approximations to a target behavior. The technique is used when students need to learn new behavior. A teacher identifies the student’s behavior and provides reinforcement only for closer approximations toward the desired behavior, which is a terminal behavior of the shaping process. Shaping is especially useful when the desired behavior is difficult to learn by instruction, imitation, and verbal or physical cues.

Research

1.Cuvo, A. J., Reagan, A., Ackerlund, J., Huckfeldt, R., & Kelly, C. (2010). Training Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders to Be Compliant with a Physical Exam. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 4(2), 168-185.

Four students with autism and two with PDD were trained to be compliant during a medical examination using a package of interventions including shaping of behaviors, preference assessment, contact desensitization, fading in aversive stimuli, video priming, prompting, verbal instructions, DRO and escape extinction. All children with ASD increased their compliance to mastery levels and this was maintained through follow-up probes.

2.Esch, B. E., Carr, J. E., & Michael, J. (2005). Evaluating stimulus-stimulus pairing and direct reinforcement in the establishment of an echoic repertoire of children diagnosed with autism. Analysis of Verbal Behavior, 21, 43-58.

Three experiments were conducted to evaluate stimulus-stimulus pairing and direct reinforcement in establishing an echoic repertoire for three children (Ages 6 & 8) with autism. One intervention, Experiment 3, demonstrated that shaping increased vowel frequency for one participant.

3.Hupp, S.D.A., & Reitman, D. (2000). Parent-assisted modification of pivotal social skills for a child diagnosed with PDD: A clinical replication. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 2, 183-187.

Two parents were instructed in implementing a token reinforcement and shaping program designed to improve the social behavior of their 8-year-old son diagnosed with PDD. Results showed positive response generalization by targeting one pivotal behavior.

Alberto, P. A., & Troutman, A. C. (2006). Applied behavior analysis for teachers (7th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, Inc.

Cuvo, A. J., Reagan, A., Ackerlund, J., Huckfeldt, R., & Kelly, C. (2010). Training children with autism spectrum disorders to be compliant with a physical exam. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 4(2), 168-185.

Cooper, J. O., Heron, T. E., &Heward, W. L. (2007). Applied behavior analysis (2nd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, Inc.

Esch, B. E., Carr, J. E., & Michael, J. (2005). Evaluating stimulus-stimulus pairing and direct reinforcement in the establishment of an echoic repertoire of children diagnosed with autism. Analysis of Verbal Behavior, 21, 43-58.

Hupp, S.D.A., & Reitman, D. (2000). Parent-assisted modification of pivotal social skills for a child diagnosed with PDD: A clinical replication. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 2, 183-187.

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